In vitro synergism between hybrid immunotoxins and chemotherapeutic drugs: relevance to immunotherapy of prostate carcinoma.
Cultured prostate carcinoma cells incubated in the presence of a novel hybrid immunotoxin and ricin A chain exhibited synergy with the chemotherapeutic drugs vinblastine, methotrexate, and bleomycin. No cooperative effect was noted with adriamycin. Under conditions where individual components of immunotoxin or chemotherapeutic drug mixtures were nontoxic or minimally toxic the immunotoxin-drug mixture exhibited marked impact on 14C amino acid incorporation into prostate carcinoma cells. Analysis of drug-treated cells by flow cytometry indicated that cells exposed to vinblastine and bleomycin bound hybrid immunotoxin antibody to a greater extent than cells not exposed to these drugs. Adriamycin did not exhibit synergistic cytotoxicity with hybrid immunotoxin. Also, adriamycin did not enhance antibody binding as evaluated by flow cytometry. The fact that hybrid monoclonal antibody-ricin A chain (HIT-RAC) conjugates inhibited uptake of 14C amino acids 3 to 10-fold within 48 h of incubation with target cells and that this inhibition was further increased 2 to 3-fold in conjunction with three out of four chemotherapeutic drugs tested may be attributed to the unique cytotoxicity imposed by the hybrid immunotoxins. The RAC moiety is not chemically coupled to antibody but instead occupies one of the antigen-combining sites of the molecule. In this manner, RAC is closely juxtaposed to the cell membrane of the target cell and is anchored in this position via binding of the remaining antigen-combining site to p40 prostate restricted antigen.
Webb, KS; Liberman, SN; Ware, JL; Walther, PJ
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