Experimental basis for intraoperative calculus localization by ultrasound.
Experiments were conducted in order to prove the usefulness of ultrasound, B-Scan and A-Mode, and A-Mode alone in the localization of small (3 to 10 mm) fragments of foreign materials in renal substance. Clinical experience indicates that stone fragments as small as 3 mm can be localized intraoperatively using A-mode alone, sterilized with gas for use in a surgical field.
Dempsey, PJ; Shoaf, MD; Weinerth, JL; Paulson, DF
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