Staging relationships and outcome in early stage testicular cancer: a report from the Testicular Cancer Intergroup Study.
The Testicular Cancer Center Intergroup Study entered surgically staged patients with nonseminomatous tumor and metastases limited to the regional lymph nodes into a previously reported cooperative trial of immediate versus delayed therapy for positive retroperitoneal node disease. Patients with negative nodes (stage I) were placed in an observation registry with specified treatment strategy upon relapse. Of 264 stage I cancer patients 27 (10.2%) had recurrence: 5 of these 27 patients died after recurrence of the testicular malignancies, while 4 other nontumor-related deaths have occurred. Pre-lymphadenectomy staging characteristics observed to predict significantly node positivity are the results of radiological examinations, presence of tumor invasion, vascular invasion and tumor histology. In a multiple logistic regression analysis with these variables, misclassification still occurs in more than a fourth of the patients. Future refinements in diagnosis may allow for better prediction of these patients at risk to have positive lymph nodes and ultimately recurrence. Presently, if assessment of nodal involvement is the objective, noninvasive procedures are not an adequate substitute for surgical staging with modified lymphadenectomy.
McLeod, DG; Weiss, RB; Stablein, DM; Muggia, FM; Paulson, DF; Ellis, JH; Spaulding, JT; Donohue, JP
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