Ontogenetic differences in energy metabolism and inhibition of protein synthesis in hippocampal slices during in vitro ischemia and 24 h of recovery.
The present study was designed to clarify whether ontogenetic differences in the vulnerability of the brain towards hypoxic-ischemic insults are only caused by the low cerebral energy demand of immature animals or whether there are additional mechanisms, such as protein synthesis (PSR), that may be involved in this phenomenon. We therefore measured tissue levels of adenylates and PSR in hippocampal slices from immature (E40) and mature (E60) guinea pigs fetuses and from adult guinea pigs during in vitro ischemia and 24 h of recovery using a recently modified method. Hippocampal slices were incubated in a temperature controlled flow-through chamber, gassed with 95% O2/5% CO2. In vitro ischemia was induced by transferring slices to a glucose-free artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) equilibrated with 95% N2/5% CO2. The duration of ischemia ranged from 10 to 40 min. Adenylates were measured by HPLC after extraction with perchloric acid. PSR was evaluated as the incorporation rate of [14C]leucine into proteins. Under control conditions, tissue levels in adenylates did not change, whereas PSR increased slightly in hippocampal slices from mature fetuses and adult animals during a 24-h control incubation period. In slices from immature fetuses ATP levels were only maintained for 2 h. During in vitro ischemia the decline in ATP, total adenylate pool, and adenylate energy charge was much slower in slices from immature fetuses than in slices from mature fetuses or adults. After in vitro ischemia, ATP and the total adenylate pool did not completely recover in mature fetuses and adults, whereas adenylate energy charge almost returned to control values independently of the developmental stage. Two hours after in vitro ischemia PSR was undisturbed in slices from immature fetuses, but severely inhibited in slices from mature fetuses and adults. With ongoing recovery, PSR in mature fetuses returned to control values, while in adults it was still inhibited even 24 h after in vitro ischemia. From these results we conclude that hippocampal slices prepared from mature guinea pig fetuses as well as from adult guinea pigs can be held metabolically stable during long-term incubation using a recently modified technique. However, in slices from immature fetuses a stable energy state could not be maintained for more than 2 h. We further conclude that postischemic disturbances in PSR closely reflect the ontogenetic changes in the vulnerability of the brain to ischemia and that low energy metabolism is certainly not the only cause of the increased vulnerability of the fetal brain to ischemia.
Berger, R; Djuricic, B; Jensen, A; Hossmann, KA; Paschen, W
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