Activation of MYD116 (gadd34) expression following transient forebrain ischemia of rat: implications for a role of disturbances of endoplasmic reticulum calcium homeostasis.
MyD116 is the murine homologue of growth arrest- and DNA damage-inducible genes (gadd34), a gene family implicated in growth arrest and apoptosis induced by endoplasmic reticulum dysfunction. The present study investigated changes in MyD116 mRNA levels induced by transient forebrain ischemia. MyD116 mRNA levels were measured by quantitative PCR. After 2 h of recovery following 30 min forebrain ischemia, MyD116 mRNA levels rose to about 550% of control both in the cortex and hippocampus. In the cortex, MyD116 mRNA levels gradually declined to 290% of control 24 h after ischemia, whereas in the hippocampus they remained high (538% of control after 24 h of recovery). To elucidate the possible mechanism underlying this activation process, MyD116 mRNA levels were also quantified in primary neuronal cell cultures under two different experimental conditions, both leading to a depletion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium pools. Changes in cytoplasmic calcium activity were assessed by fluorescence microscopy of fura-2-loaded cells, and protein synthesis (PS) was evaluated by measuring the incorporation of l-[4,5-3H]leucine into proteins. The first procedure, exposure to thapsigargin (Tg), an irreversible inhibitor of ER Ca2+-ATPase, produced a parallel increase in cytoplasmic calcium activity and a long-lasting suppression of PS, while the second, immersion in a calcium-free medium supplemented with the calcium chelator EGTA, caused a parallel decrease in cytoplasmic calcium levels and a short-lasting suppression of PS. Exposure of neurons to Tg induced a permanent increase in MyD116 mRNA levels. Exposure of cells to calcium-free medium supplemented with EGTA produced only a transient rise in MyD116 mRNA levels peaking after 6 h of recovery. The results demonstrate that depletion of ER calcium stores without any increase in cytoplasmic calcium activity is sufficient to activate MyD116 expression. A similar mechanism may be responsible for the increase in MyD116 mRNA levels observed after transient forebrain ischemia. It is concluded that those pathological disturbances triggering the activation of MyD116 expression after transient forebrain ischemia are only transient in the cerebral cortex but permanent in the hippocampus.
Doutheil, J; Althausen, S; Gissel, C; Paschen, W
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