Neurologic deficit, blood flow and biochemical sequelae of reversible focal cerebral ischemia in cats.
Temporary focal cerebral ischemia was induced in 23 cats by occluding the left middle cerebral artery (MCA) for 2 h. Animals then were divided into groups for unforced reperfusion of varying duration ranging from 2 to 48 h. Regional blood flow (rCBF) at the borders of the ischemic area was measured repeatedly using the hydrogen clearance technique, and neurological ratings were obtained, both during ischemia and reperfusion. At the scheduled end of reperfusion brains were frozen in situ with liquid nitrogen, and regional distributions of biochemical substrate contents as well as tissue pH were visualized using bioluminescence and fluorescence techniques. During focal ischemia collateral flow in the border zone dropped to 55 +/- 20.3% of control level, and all animals developed a neurologic deficit with a median of 6 points on a disability scale from 0 to 10, rCBF and functional impairment being closely correlated (tau = -0.47, P1 less than 0.005). After reopening of the MCA there was an immediate and rather uniform increase in border zone flow to 105 +/- 25.7% of control level, while neurologic recovery was quite variable. In all but one animal reversible ischemia led to persistent disturbances in the energy-producing metabolism as demonstrated by the low regional ATP content, which in part was accompanied by a diminished NADH fluorescence and an alkaline pH shift at high tissue glucose levels. These findings suggest that disturbances in cerebral energy metabolism induced by temporary ischemia may be caused by inhibition of the glycolytic pathway that is hardly reversed by unforced reperfusion and, therefore, results in permanent damage.
Paschen, W; Sato, M; Pawlik, G; Umbach, C; Heiss, WD
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