GADD34 protein levels increase after transient ischemia in the cortex but not in the CA1 subfield: implications for post-ischemic recovery of protein synthesis in ischemia-resistant cells.
Transient cerebral ischemia is a pathological process whereby an irreversible suppression of protein synthesis is believed to contribute to the extent of cell death in vulnerable neurons. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) dysfunction has been identified as being responsible for ischemia-induced shut-down of translation. Recovery from ER dysfunction is facilitated by GADD34, a protein that dephosphorylates eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF)2alpha-P and thus reactivates protein synthesis. We investigated ischemia-induced changes in GADD34 levels in wild-type and Cu2+/Zn2+ SOD (SOD1) over-expressing rats. Transient global cerebral ischemia was induced by common carotid artery occlusion. Tissue samples were taken from the vulnerable hippocampal CA1 subfield and the resistant cerebral cortex of the right and left hemispheres for evaluation of changes in gadd34 mRNA and GADD34 protein levels. In wild-type animals, we found significantly lower GADD34 levels than in SOD1 transgenes but no differences in gadd34 mRNA levels, implying that superoxides regulate gadd34 translation. After ischemia, GADD34 protein levels were significantly increased in the cortex but not in the CA1 subfield, and these changes occurred earlier in SOD1 transgenic than in wild-type animals. The rise in gadd34 mRNA levels did not differ in the cortex and CA1 subfield, implying that gadd34 expression is regulated at the translational level.
Paschen, W; Hayashi, T; Saito, A; Chan, PH
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