Effect of transient focal ischemia of mouse brain on energy state and NAD levels: no evidence that NAD depletion plays a major role in secondary disturbances of energy metabolism.
It has been proposed that NAD depletion resulting from excessive activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase is responsible for secondary energy failure after transient cerebral ischemia. However, this hypothesis has never been verified by measurement of ATP and NAD levels in the same tissue sample. In this study, we therefore investigated the effect of transient focal cerebral ischemia on the temporal profiles of changes in the levels of energy metabolites and NAD. Ischemia was induced in mice by occluding the left middle cerebral artery using the intraluminal filament technique. Animals were subjected to 1-h ischemia, followed by 0, 1, 3, 6, or 24 h of reperfusion. During ischemia, ATP levels, total adenylate pool, and adenylate energy charge dropped to approximately 20, 50, and 40% of control, respectively, whereas NAD levels remained close to control. Energy state recovered transiently, peaking at 3 h of recovery (ATP levels and total adenylate pool recovered to 78 and 81% of control). In animals subjected to reperfusion of varying duration, the extent of ATP depletion was clearly more pronounced than that of NAD. The results imply that depletion of NAD pools did not play a major role in secondary disturbances of energy-producing metabolism after transient focal cerebral ischemia. Changes in ATP levels were closely related to changes in total adenylate pool (p<0.001). The high energy charge after 6 h of reperfusion (0.90 versus a control value of 0.93) and the close relationship between the decline of ATP and total adenylate pool suggest that degradation or a washout of adenylates (owing to leaky membranes) rather than a mismatch between energy production and consumption is the main causative factor contributing to the secondary energy failure observed after prolonged recovery.
Paschen, W; Oláh, L; Mies, G
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