Activation of gadd153 expression through transient cerebral ischemia: evidence that ischemia causes endoplasmic reticulum dysfunction.
The expression of the gene encoding the C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP), which is also known as growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible gene 153 (gadd153), has been shown to be specifically activated under conditions that disturb the functioning of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). To investigate a possible role of ER dysfunction in the pathological process of ischemic cell damage, we studied ischemia-induced changes in gadd153 expression using quantitative PCR. Transient cerebral ischemia was produced in rats by four-vessel occlusion. In the hippocampus, ischemia induced a pronounced increase in gadd153 mRNA levels, peaking at 8 h of recovery (6.4-fold increase, p<0.01), whereas changes in the cortex were less marked (non-significant increase). To elucidate the possible mechanism underlying this activation process, gadd153 mRNA levels were also evaluated in primary neuronal cell cultures under two different conditions, both leading to a depletion of ER calcium pools in the presence or absence of an increase in cytoplasmic calcium activity. The first procedure, exposure to thapsigargin, an irreversible inhibitor of ER Ca2+-ATPase, caused a marked increase in gadd153 mRNA levels both in cortical and hippocampal neurons, peaking at 12-18 h after treatment. The second procedure, immersion of cells in calcium free medium supplemented with EGTA, caused only a transient increase in gadd153 mRNA levels, peaking at 6 h of recovery, indicating that a depletion of ER calcium stores in the absence of an increase in cytoplasmic calcium activity is sufficient to activate neuronal gadd153 expression. The results imply that transient cerebral ischemia disturbs the functioning of the ER and that these pathological changes are more pronounced in the hippocampus compared to the cortex.
Paschen, W; Gissel, C; Linden, T; Althausen, S; Doutheil, J
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