Morphogenesis in the yeast cell cycle: regulation by Cdc28 and cyclins.
Analysis of cell cycle regulation in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has shown that a central regulatory protein kinase, Cdc28, undergoes changes in activity through the cell cycle by associating with distinct groups of cyclins that accumulate at different times. The various cyclin/Cdc28 complexes control different aspects of cell cycle progression, including the commitment step known as START and mitosis. We found that altering the activity of Cdc28 had profound effects on morphogenesis during the yeast cell cycle. Our results suggest that activation of Cdc28 by G1 cyclins (Cln1, Cln2, or Cln3) in unbudded G1 cells triggers polarization of the cortical actin cytoskeleton to a specialized pre-bud site at one end of the cell, while activation of Cdc28 by mitotic cyclins (Clb1 or Clb2) in budded G2 cells causes depolarization of the cortical actin cytoskeleton and secretory apparatus. Inactivation of Cdc28 following cyclin destruction in mitosis triggers redistribution of cortical actin structures to the neck region for cytokinesis. In the case of pre-bud site assembly following START, we found that the actin rearrangement could be triggered by Cln/Cdc28 activation in the absence of de novo protein synthesis, suggesting that the kinase may directly phosphorylate substrates (such as actin-binding proteins) that regulate actin distribution in cells.
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