Cell-cycle checkpoints that ensure coordination between nuclear and cytoplasmic events in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Cytoskeletal organization is crucial for several aspects of cell-cycle progression but cytoskeletal elements are quite sensitive to environmental perturbations. Two novel checkpoint controls monitor the function of the actin and microtubule systems in budding yeast and operate to delay cell-cycle progression in response to cytoskeletal perturbations. In cells whose actin cytoskeleton has been perturbed, bud formation is frequently delayed and the morphogenesis checkpoint introduces a compensatory delay of nuclear division until a bud has been formed. In cells whose microtubule cytoskeleton has been perturbed, anaphase spindle elongation often occurs entirely within the mother cell, and the post-anaphase nuclear migration checkpoint introduces a compensatory delay of cytokinesis until one pole of the anaphase nucleus enters the bud. Recent studies indicate that regulators of entry into mitosis are localized to the daughter side of the mother-bud neck whereas regulators of exit from mitosis are localized to the spindle pole bodies. Thus, specific cell-cycle regulators are well-placed to monitor whether a cell has formed a bud and whether a daughter nucleus has been delivered accurately to the bud following mitosis.
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