Galpha12 and Galpha13 negatively regulate the adhesive functions of cadherin.
Cadherins function to promote adhesion between adjacent cells and play critical roles in such cellular processes as development, tissue maintenance, and tumor suppression. We previously demonstrated that heterotrimeric G proteins of the G12 subfamily comprised of Galpha12 and Galpha13 interact with the cytoplasmic domain of cadherins and cause the release of the transcriptional activator beta-catenin (Meigs, T. E., Fields, T. A., McKee, D. D., and Casey, P. J. (2001) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 98, 519-524). Because of the importance of beta-catenin in cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion, we examined whether G12 subfamily proteins could also regulate cadherin function. The introduction of mutationally activated G12 proteins into K562 cells expressing E-cadherin blocked cadherin-mediated cell adhesion in steady-state assays. Also, in breast cancer cells, the introduction of activated G12 proteins blocked E-cadherin function in a fast aggregation assay. Aggregation mediated by a mutant cadherin that lacks G12 binding ability was not affected by activated G12 proteins, indicating a requirement for direct G12-cadherin interaction. Furthermore, in wound-filling assays in which ectopic expression of E-cadherin inhibits cell migration, the expression of activated G12 proteins reversed the inhibition via a mechanism that was independent of G12-mediated Rho activation. These results validate the G12-cadherin interaction as a potentially important event in cell biology and suggest novel roles for G12 proteins in the regulation of cadherin-mediated developmental events and in the loss of cadherin function that is characteristic of metastatic tumor progression.
Meigs, TE; Fedor-Chaiken, M; Kaplan, DD; Brackenbury, R; Casey, PJ
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