Differences between men and women in social relations, resource deficits, and depressive symptomatology during later life in four nations
This article examines gender differences in social relations and resource deficits in France (N = 553), Germany (N = 516), Japan (N = 491), and the United States (N = 514). These data, from regionally representative samples, indicate few gender differences in quantity or quality of social relations, but that women are more likely than men to experience widowhood, illness, and financial strain. In all countries, more deficits and more negative social interactions are associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms. Interestingly, among women in France and Japan but not among men in any country, quality of social relations offsets the negative consequences of resource deficits. Findings suggest that quality of social relations may have important implications for helping people, particularly women, cope with resource deficits common in late life.
Antonucci, TC; Lansford, JE; Akiyama, H; Smith, J; Baltes, MM; Takahashi, K; Fuhrer, R; Dartigues, JF
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