The effect of high-dose salmon calcitonin on bone mineral metabolism in the normal rat.
The paucity of information on the effect of long-term high-dose salmon calcitonin administration on normal bone mineral metabolism and histology prompted an investigation of the influence of high-dose synthetic calcitonin in the rat. Serum ionized calcium, osteocalcin or BGP (bone gla protein), and immunoreactive PTH were measured serially during calcitonin administration and bone histomorphometry analyzed at 6 weeks (after sacrifice). Daily injections of salmon calcitonin, 0.4 IU/100 g (group B) and 2 IU/100 g (group C), resulted in significant hypocalcemia at 4 hours for both experimental groups (P less than 0.004). Serum iPTH was significantly higher over the study period for both groups administered calcitonin. Serum BGP levels were significantly lower than controls during the study in group C (P less than 0.002) and to a lesser extent in group B (P less than 0.05). In group C, bone histomorphometry revealed increased resorption (osteoclast count), decreased trabecular bone volume, and decreased double-labeled tetracycline surface (bone formation). In group B an increase in osteoclast count but no alteration in bone formation was observed. To assess the role of PTH in the above findings, high-dose calcitonin was administered to parathyroidectomized rats. All of the above changes in bone histomorphometry were not observed in this group of animals. In conclusion, high doses of calcitonin promote hypocalcemia, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and osteoclastosis in the normal rat in a dose-dependent manner with very high-dose calcitonin impairing bone formation.
Glajchen, N; Thomas, S; Jowell, P; Epstein, S; Ismail, F; Fallon, M
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