Molecular and cytogenetic characterization of a novel translocation t(4;22) involving the breakpoint cluster region and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha genes in a patient with atypical chronic myeloid leukemia.
We report a case of BCR-ABL-negative atypical chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) with translocation t(4;22) (q12;q11.2) juxtaposing the breakpoint cluster region (BCR) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha (PDGFRA) genes. The patient was a 57-year-old man with a history of stage IV diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, status post-6 cycles of combination chemotherapy in 1999, who presented in August 2002 with enlarged lymph nodes, anemia, and marked leukocytosis (50 x 10(9) g/dL) consistent with a myeloproliferative disorder (MPD). A bone marrow biopsy showed granulocytic hyperplasia, neutrophilia, and mild eosinophilia. Initial cytogenetic evaluation by interphase FISH for BCR-ABL, to rule out a translocation 9;22, showed a variant signal pattern consistent with rearrangement of BCR at 22q11.2, but not ABL at 9q34. Analysis of the patient's cDNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for BCR-ABL was negative. Cytogenetic analysis showed an abnormal karyotype with rearrangement of chromosomes 4 and 22. PCR amplification and subsequent sequence analysis demonstrated an in-frame 5'-BCR/3'-PDGFRA fusion in the patient's cDNA. PDGFRA encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase and shares structural and organizational homology with the KIT and CSf1R receptor genes. However, although the incidence of MPD involving translocations of PDGFRB has been well established, to our knowledge there are only two previous reports describing a BCR-PDGFRA fusion gene, in 3 patients diagnosed with atypical CML. Here, we report the molecular and cytogenetic characterization of a patient with BCR-PDGFRA-positive MPD who had a complete hematologic response after treatment with imatinib mesylate.
Safley, AM; Sebastian, S; Collins, TS; Tirado, CA; Stenzel, TT; Gong, JZ; Goodman, BK
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