The Upgrading and Downgrading of Occupations: Issues, Evidence, and Implications for Education

Journal Article

This paper reviews a major debate that has implications for educational research and policy communities. The debate concerns the skill upgrading versus downgrading of occupations in the United States and relationships to schooling and vocational preparation. The review summarizes the major positions in the debate, surveys the evidence on skill changes, including methodological and design issues and concepts and measures for skill, and discusses research and policy implications for general and vocational education.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Spenner, KI

Published Date

  • June 1, 1985

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 55 / 2

Start / End Page

  • 125 - 154

Published By

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1935-1046

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0034-6543

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.3102/00346543055002125


  • en