Effects of experimentally induced expectancies of external control: An investigation of learned helplessness
Used the learned helplessness paradigm to assess the effects of experimentally induced expectancies of external control in 28 undergraduates. Expectancies of external control were induced by the administration of random reinforcement for performance on concept learning tasks. Contrary to expectation, "helpless" Ss initiated more controlling behavior over an aversive event in a subsequent problem-solving situation than control Ss. The existence of a curvilinear relationship between experiences producing external expectancies and behavioral manifestations of helplessness is offered as an explanation for the results, and a discussion of variables influencing this relationship is presented. (37 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved). © 1974 American Psychological Association.
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