Safety, immunogenicity and efficacy in healthy infants of G1 and G2 human reassortant rotavirus vaccine in a new stabilizer/buffer liquid formulation.
BACKGROUND: A refrigerator-stable rotavirus (RV) vaccine that withstands gastric acid is anticipated to permit more widespread use of RV vaccine. OBJECTIVE: We investigated for the first time in infants an oral, liquid formulation of G1 and G2 human bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine (HRRV) with a new stabilizer/buffer (S/B) containing sucrose, sodium phosphate and sodium citrate. METHODS: During 1997 through 1998, 731 healthy infants approximately 2 to 4 months of age were enrolled at 19 US sites to receive 3 HRRV or placebo doses approximately 6 to 8 weeks apart in a partially double blinded study. Infants were randomized to: (1) HRRV with no S/B but with prefeeding; (2) HRRV plus 1 of 3 different concentrations/volumes of S/B; or (3) placebo. RESULTS: No serious vaccine-related adverse experiences or intussusception cases were reported. No statistically significant differences were observed between vaccine and placebo recipients for fever (> or =38.1 degrees C) 0 to 7 days after any dose, irritability, vomiting or diarrhea incidence 0 to 42 days after any dose. Vaccine virus shedding among vaccine recipients was uncommon. Among S/B vaccine groups, proportions of infants with a > or =3-fold titer rise from baseline to Postdose 3 for G1 serum-neutralizing antibody (SNA), G2 SNA, WC3 SNA, serum anti-RV IgA, serum anti-RV IgG and stool anti-RV IgA were generally similar to those of the prefed non-S/B group. CONCLUSIONS: HRRV with a new S/B was generally well-tolerated; immunogenicity was generally similar to the prefed non-S/B group. No intussusception cases were reported, but the small sample size precluded a definitive conclusion. A large international clinical study is under way to address safety and efficacy of an S/B formulation of a pentavalent version of HRRV.
Clark, HF; Burke, CJ; Volkin, DB; Offit, P; Ward, RL; Bresee, JS; Dennehy, P; Gooch, WM; Malacaman, E; Matson, D; Walter, E; Watson, B; Krah, DL; Dallas, MJ; Schödel, F; Kaplan, KM; Heaton, P
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