Herpesvirus saimiri transformation of HIV type 1 suppressive CD8+ lymphocytes from an HIV type 1-infected asymptomatic individual.
CD8+ T lymphocytes from HIV+ individuals can potently suppress HIV-1 replication in a noncytolytic manner. This suppression appears to be multifactorial and the molecules contributing have not been fully elucidated. As an approach to this question we used herpesvirus saimiri (HVS) to transform CD8+ T lymphocytes from an HIV+ asymptomatic donor to a continuously growing, activation-independent, IL-2-dependent phenotype. The transformed cell population, termed CD8(HVS), had an activated phenotype, contained HVS sequences, did not shed infectious HVS virus, and was polyclonal. The CD8(HVS) cells, despite the absence of detectable CTL activity, potently suppressed HIV-1 production by both autologous and heterologous CD4+ cells from infected donors. The CD8(HVS) cells in coculture also suppressed virus production from PBMCs acutely infected with syncytium-inducing (SI) strains or NSI primary isolates of HIV-1. The supernatants from the CD8(HVS) cells and their concentrates derived from these supernatants were suppressive to NSI primary isolates of HIV-1 but not to SI strains. Fractionation of these concentrates showed that the suppressive activity was associated with low molecular mass (6500- to 19,300-Da) protein species. Western blotting and ELISA indicated that the CC chemokines MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, and RANTES were present in these fractions. Antibody-blocking studies with antibodies to the CC chemokines indicated that a significant portion of the soluble HIV-suppressive activity was due to these molecules. However, these experiments also suggested the inhibitory activity of the CD8(HVS) cells in coculture is not due exclusively to the CC chemokines. The HVS-transformed cells provide a useful tool for the study of noncytolytic CD8+ T lymphocyte-mediated suppression of HIV-1.
Lacey, SF; Weinhold, KJ; Chen, CH; McDanal, C; Oei, C; Greenberg, ML
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