Linkage analysis of familial Alzheimer disease, using chromosome 21 markers.
Chromosome 21 markers were tested for linkage to familial Alzheimer disease (FAD) in 48 kindreds. These families had multiple cases of Alzheimer disease (AD) in 2 or more generations with family age-at-onset means (M) ranging from 41 to 83 years. Included in this group are seven Volga German families which are thought to be genetically homogeneous with respect to FAD. Autopsy documentation of AD was available for 32 families. Linkage to the 21 q11-q21 region was tested using D21S16, D21S13, D21S110, D21S1/S11, and the APP gene as genetic markers. When linkage results for all the families were summed, the LOD scores for these markers were consistently negative and the entire region was formally excluded. Linkage results were also summed for the following family groups; late-onset (M greater than 60), early-onset (M less than or equal to 60), Volga Germans (M = 56), and early-onset non-Volga Germans (M less than or equal to 60). For the first three groups, LOD scores were negative for this region. For the early-onset non-Volga German group (six families), small positive LOD scores of Zmax = 0.78 (recombination fraction theta = .15), Zmax = 0.27 (theta = .15), and Zmax = 0.64 (theta = .0), were observed for D21S13, D21S16, and D21S110, respectively. The remainder of the long arm of chromosome 21 was tested for linkage to FAD using seven markers spanning the q22 region. Results for these markers were also predominantly negative. Thus it is highly unlikely that a chromosome 21 gene is responsible for late-onset FAD and at least some forms of early-onset FAD represented by the Volga German kindreds.
Schellenberg, GD; Pericak-Vance, MA; Wijsman, EM; Moore, DK; Gaskell, PC; Yamaoka, LA; Bebout, JL; Anderson, L; Welsh, KA; Clark, CM
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