Concomitant aortic and renal artery reconstruction in patients on an intensive antihypertensive medical regimen: long-term outcome.
A beneficial effect in blood pressure control is presumed for patients on an intensive preoperative antihypertensive regimen who undergo empiric renal revascularization. Nonetheless, a noticeable decline in surgical cure rates for hypertension has been recently observed in patients with generalized atherosclerosis. The outcome of patients on multiple preoperative antihypertensive agents who underwent combined aortic and renal artery reconstruction was reviewed. The study population comprised 43 patients who underwent concomitant renal artery and aortic reconstruction for atherosclerotic disease between 1983 and 1995 and who were taking two or more antihypertensive medications and had a serum creatinine of less than or equal to 1.7 mg/dL. Operative management included an aortic reconstruction with either unilateral (n = 22) or bilateral (n = 19) aortorenal bypass or renal endarterectomy (n = 2). Operative mortality was 4.7% (2 of 43). The estimated 5-yr probability of survival was 83% (95% C.I. 0.70, 0.99). Late follow-up data on blood pressure control were available for review in 32 patients at a median follow-up of 37 months. Hypertension was cured in 1 (3%) and improved in an additional 15 (47%) patients. The numbers of antihypertensive medications taken preoperatively (mean = 2.7) declined at late follow-up (mean = 1.6). Notably, the largest reduction was observed with beta blockers (p = 0.006), central sympatholytics (p = 0.041), and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (p = 0.052). The number of preoperative antihypertensive medications was not significantly related to survival or to blood pressure improvement. However, uncontrolled preoperative hypertension despite antihypertensive therapy was associated with a favorable blood pressure response to operation (p < 0.001). Patients on an intensive antihypertensive regimen can safely undergo concomitant renal artery and aortic reconstruction for the empiric management of hypertension. Poorly controlled preoperative hypertension in the presence of multiple antihypertensive agents is a favorable marker for improved postoperative blood pressure control.
Kulbaski, MJ; Kosinski, AS; Smith, RB; Salam, AA; Dodson, TF; Lumsden, AB; Chaikof, EL
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