Ischemic nephropathy and concomitant aortic disease: a ten-year experience.
PURPOSE: The durability of renal preservation after surgical intervention has not been well defined, particularly in patients with associated aortic disease. A review of all patients at the Emory University Hospital with renal insufficiency (creatinine level > or = 1.8) and concomitant atherosclerotic aortic and renovascular disease was undertaken. METHODS: Fifty patients underwent both renal revascularization (71 kidneys) and the repair of aneurysmal or symptomatic aortic occlusive disease between 1982 and 1992. Hypertension was present in 96% of patients and diabetes was present in 10%. The preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate (EGFR) was 25.18 +/- 8.29 ml/min (creatinine level 3.1 +/- 1.5 mg/dl). Operative management included bilateral renal artery repair (n = 21), unilateral repair alone (n = 17), and unilateral repair with contralateral nephrectomy (n = 12). The relative percent change in the postoperative EGFR (> or = 7 days after operation) increased by at least 20% in 42% of the patients, had decreased by 20% or more in only 4%, and was otherwise categorized as unchanged in the remaining 54% of the study group. RESULTS: The 30-day operative mortality rate was 2.0% (1 of 50). Forty-five of the surviving 49 patients (91.8%) were available for follow-up (median 49 months). During this period nine patients (18.4%) eventually required dialysis, four within 6 months of operation, and 19 patients died. Neither subgroup experienced a retrieval of renal function after operation. Five-year survival rate was 61%, and a trend was noted between the risk of death and the relative change in EGFR after operation (p = 0.13). The likelihood of eventually requiring long-term dialysis was highest among those patients with low preoperative functional renal reserve as measured by preoperative creatinine level of 3 mg/dl or greater (p < 0.0001), or preoperative EGFR less than 20 ml/min (p = 0.0001). Blood pressure was cured or improved in 50% at late follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Early improvement of renal function may be observed in nearly one half of patients subjected to combined aortic and renal revascularization. Nonetheless, renal preservation may not be sustainable in patients with compromised preoperative function. Intervention before marked functional decline remains the best option for minimizing the risk of eventual dialysis.
Chaikof, EL; Smith, RB; Salam, AA; Dodson, TF; Lumsden, AB; Kosinski, AS; Coyle, KA; Allen, RC
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