Acute urinary toxicity following transperineal prostate brachytherapy using a modified Quimby loading method.
PURPOSE: To examine the acute urinary toxicity following transperineal prostate implant using a modified Quimby loading method with regard to time course, severity, and factors that may be associated with a higher incidence of morbidity. METHODS AND MATERIALS: One hundred thirty-nine patients with prostate adenocarcinoma treated with brachytherapy from 1997 through 1999 had follow-up records available for review. Patients considered for definitive brachytherapy alone included those with prostate specific antigen (PSA) < or = 6, Gleason score (GS) < or = 6, clinical stage < T2b, and prostate volumes generally less than 40 cc. Patients with larger prostate volumes were given neoadjuvant antiandrogen therapy. Those with GS > 6, PSA > 6, or Stage > T2a were treated with external beam radiation therapy followed by brachytherapy boost. Sources were loaded according to a modified Quimby method. At each follow-up, toxicity was graded based on a modified RTOG urinary toxicity scale. RESULTS: Acute urinary toxicity occurred in 88%. Grade I toxicity was reported in 23%, grade II in 45%, and grade III in 20%, with 14% requiring prolonged (greater than 1 week) intermittent or indwelling catheterization. Overall median duration of symptoms was 12 months. There was no difference in duration of symptoms between patients treated with I-125 or Pd-103 sources (p = 0.71). After adjusting for GS and PSA, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed higher incidence of grade 3 toxicity in patients with larger prostate volumes (p = 0.002), and those with more seeds implanted (p < 0.001). Higher incidence of prolonged catheterization was found in patients receiving brachytherapy alone (p = 0.01), with larger prostate volumes (p = 0.01), and those with more seeds implanted (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Interstitial brachytherapy for prostate cancer leads to a high incidence of acute urinary toxicity, most of which is mild to moderate in severity. A prolonged need for catheterization can occur in some patients. Patients receiving brachytherapy alone, those with prostate volumes greater than 30 cc, and those implanted with a greater number of seeds have the highest incidence of significant toxicity.
Kang, SK; Chou, RH; Dodge, RK; Clough, RW; Kang, HL; Bowen, MG; Steffey, BA; Das, SK; Zhou, SM; Whitehurst, AW; Buckley, NJ; Kim, JH; Joyner, RE; Sarmina, I; Montana, GS; Ingram, SS; Anscher, MS
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