Safety of nifedipine in patients with hypertension: a meta-analysis.
Our objective was to compare cardiovascular event rates in patients with mild or moderate hypertension who received nifedipine with active drug controls. We performed a MEDLARS search using the MeSH heading "hypertension" and the text word "nifedipine" to identify all articles that were published between 1966 and August 1995 in English, French, German, Italian, and Spanish languages and that involved human subjects. The computerized search was supplemented by a manual search of article bibliographies. Review of 1880 citations revealed 98 randomized controlled clinical trials that met protocol criteria. Articles were extracted independently by two doctors who were blinded for author, institution, and treatment regimen, using a structured, pretested extraction form. Differences of opinion were resolved by consensus. Fourteen events occurred in 5198 exposures (0.27%) to nifedipine and 24 events in 5402 exposures (0.44%) to other active drug controls. Unadjusted odds ratios for nifedipine versus controls were 0.49 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.22-1.09) for definitive events (death, nonfatal myocardial infarction or stroke, revascularization procedure) and 0.61 (95% CI, 0.31-1.17) for all events (definitive plus increased angina). The odds ratio for nifedipine monotherapy (sustained- or extended-release in 91% of exposures) was nonsignificantly higher for definitive and all events (odds ratio, 1.40; 95% CI, 0.49-4.03 and odds ratio, 1.39; 95% CI, 0.59-3.32, respectively). The odds ratio for nifedipine in combination with another drug was significantly lower for definitive and all events (odds ratio, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.01-0.66 and odds ratio, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.03-0.65, respectively). Differences in odds ratio for nifedipine monotherapy and combined therapy were statistically significant (P=.02 for definitive events and P=.001 for all events). Results support the safety of sustained- and extended-release nifedipine in the treatment of mild or moderate hypertension when it is used in combination with other drugs.
Stason, WB; Schmid, CH; Niedzwiecki, D; Whiting, GW; Caubet, JF; Luo, D; Ross, SD; Chalmers, TC
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