A pilot study of hepatic artery floxuridine combined with systemic 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin. A potential adjuvant program after resection of colorectal hepatic metastases.
BACKGROUND: Most patients with colorectal carcinoma metastatic to the liver have relapses after surgical resection of hepatic metastases with failures divided equally between hepatic and extrahepatic sites. A pilot study was begun using a regimen combining intrahepatic floxuridine (FUDR) and systemic 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and leucovorin (LV) to determine its safety and efficacy. METHODS: Because this was a pilot study, 21 patients with unresectable hepatic metastases from colorectal carcinoma were treated to assess the regimen's toxicity. Eight patients had liver metastases that were resected completely; then they received treatment. FUDR was given by hepatic arterial pump through a 14-day continuous infusion at 0.25 mg/kg/day. Systemic therapy consisted of LV 200 mg/m2 and 5-FU 280 mg/m2 using a bolus dose of 5-FU for 5 days with escalation of the 5-FU dose in separate patient cohorts. The maximally tolerated 5-FU dose was 325 mg/m2. RESULTS: The median survival in the 21 unresectable patients was 16 months with a partial response rate of 56% (10 of 18 evaluable patients; 95% confidence interval, 38-79%). The major systemic toxicity was diarrhea, Grade 3 or 4, in 54% of patients being treated in the 4-week regimen and 19%, in the 5-week regimen. The level of hepatic toxicity was similar to that in previous studies using intrahepatic chemotherapy alone, i.e., 48% of patients had a 200% increase in alkaline phosphatase levels and 10% had bilirubin elevations of more than 3.0 mg/dl (one patient had documented biliary sclerosis). All eight patients treated with adjuvant therapy were alive without disease after a median follow-up of 23 months. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic 5-FU and LV can be combined safely with intraarterial FUDR without loss of efficacy or increased biliary toxicity. Eight patients treated with this regimen as adjuvant therapy after liver metastasis resection were alive and disease-free after a median follow-up of 23 months.
Kemeny, N; Conti, JA; Sigurdson, E; Cohen, A; Seiter, K; Lincer, R; Niedzwiecki, D; Botet, J; Chapman, D; Costa, P
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