Analysis of surgical salvage after failure of primary therapy in rectal cancer: results from Intergroup Study 0114.
PURPOSE: Intergroup Study 0114 was designed to study the effect of various chemotherapy regimens delivered after potentially curative surgical resection of T3, T4, and/or node-positive rectal cancer. A subset analysis was undertaken to investigate the prevalence and influence of salvage therapy among patients with recurrent disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Adjuvant therapy consisted of two cycles of fluorouracil (FU)-based chemotherapy followed by pelvic irradiation with chemotherapy and two more cycles of chemotherapy after radiation therapy. A total of 1,792 patients were entered onto the study and 1,696 were assessable. After a median of 8.9 years of follow-up, 715 patients (42%) had disease recurrence, and an additional 10% died without evidence of disease. Five hundred patients with follow-up information available had a single organ or single site of first recurrence (73.5% of all recurrences). RESULTS: A total of 171 patients (34% of those with a single organ or single site of recurrence) had a potentially curative resection of the metastatic or locally recurrent disease. Single-site first recurrences in the liver, lung, or pelvis occurred in 448 patients (90% of the single-site recurrences), with 159 (35%) of these undergoing surgical resection for attempted cure. Overall survival differed significantly between the resected and nonresected groups (P <.0001), with overall 5-year probabilities of.27 and.06, respectively. Controlling for worst performance status at the time of recurrence does not alter this relationship. Patients who underwent salvage surgery had significantly increased survival (P <.001) for each site. CONCLUSION: Attempted surgical salvage of rectal cancer recurrence is performed commonly in the United States. The chance of a long-term cure with such intervention is approximately 27%.
Tepper, JE; O'Connell, M; Hollis, D; Niedzwiecki, D; Cooke, E; Mayer, RJ; Intergroup Study 0114,
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