A compensatory base change in human U2 snRNA can suppress a branch site mutation.
We have developed an assay to test whether U2 snRNA can base-pair with the branch site during mammalian mRNA splicing. The beta 110 point mutation (GG----AG) within the first intron of human beta-globin generates a new 3' splice site that is preferentially used. We show here that use of the normal 3' splice site can be restored either by improving the match of a cryptic branch site to the branch site consensus or by introducing mutant U2 snRNAs with greater complementarity to the cryptic branch site. These data indicate that human U2 snRNA can form base pairs with the mRNA precursor; however, base pairing appears to be optional because some mammalian branch sites do not match the consensus.
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