The effect of soluble complement receptor type 1 on hyperacute allograft rejection.
A major obstacle to successful organ transplantation in sensitized recipients is antibody-mediated hyperacute rejection. We hypothesized that human recombinant soluble complement receptor type 1 (sCR1), which inhibits activation of the complement cascade at multiple stages, would delay this process. Using a well-established model of hyperacute rejection, 21 Lewis rats each received three successive ACI rat skin grafts which resulted in high serum titers of ACI-specific antibodies. These hypersensitized Lewis rats then received heterotopic ACI cardiac allografts. Immediately prior to allograft reperfusion, sCR1 at 3 mg/kg (n = 11) or an equivalent volume of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) (n = 10) was administered intravenously. Five minutes following allograft reperfusion, hemolytic complement activity was reduced by 63 +/- 2% (SEM) in the sCR1 group vs 25 +/- 3% in the PBS group (P less than 0.0001, Wilcoxon rank sum test (WRST)). Graft survival in the sCR1 group was prolonged to 32.0 +/- 4.47 hr vs 3.25 +/- 0.81 hr in the PBS group (P less than 0.0001, WRST). Serial histologic examination of allografts showed that sCR1 therapy prevented the early development of luminal platelet thrombi in the allograft coronary vessels. This study demonstrates that a single 3 mg/kg dose of sCR1 significantly prolongs ACI cardiac allograft survival in the hypersensitized Lewis rat recipient. Complement inactivation, mediated by sCR1, may prove useful for transplantation in sensitized recipients.
Pruitt, SK; Bollinger, RR
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