Immunological memory induced by genetically transduced tumor cells.
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated the usefulness of gene-modified tumor cells for immunotherapy. Using the tumorigenic murine fibrosarcoma, MCA 106, we investigated the effects of localized interferon-gamma (IFNg) secretion on tumorigenicity and on long-term memory. METHODS: The murine IFNg (MuIFNg) gene was introduced into tumor cells. High and low IFNg-secreting clones were isolated. C57BL/6 mice were injected subcutaneously (s.c.) with either parental (P), high or low IFNg-secreting (H- or L-IFNg) cells, and tumor growth was assessed weekly. Spleens were harvested on different days postinjection (p.i.) to assess in vitro cytolytic activity. In parallel, tissues from injection sites were stained with macrophage-, CD4-, and CD8-detecting antibodies. Mice were injected s.c. with H-IFNg MCA106 tumor. After 150 days the animals were rechallenged s.c. with MCA106P in one leg and with irrelevant syngeneic tumor in the other. RESULTS: Both P- and L-IFNg cells had similar growth, whereas the H-IFNg cells never grew. Only splenocytes from the H-IFNg animals showed in vitro CTL activity persisting until day 30 p.i. Histological data revealed a macrophage and CD4+ infiltrate much earlier in the H-IFNg group compared with the P group. Only the irrelevant, syngeneic tumor grew in animals previously injected with H-IFNg cells, whereas both P and irrelevant syngeneic tumors grew in controls. CONCLUSIONS: Transduction of MCA106 cells with the MuIFNg gene diminished in vivo tumorigenicity in proportion to the amount of IFNg secreted. Immunization with H-IFNg cells elicited a host response characterized by macrophages and CD4+ cells. Long-term tumor-specific memory was seen after immunization with H-IFNg cells.
Dar, MM; Abdel-Wahab, Z; Vervaert, CE; Darrow, T; Barber, J; Seigler, HF
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