Interpolating unipolar epicardial potentials from electrodes separated by increasing distances.
In cardiac mapping, potentials for unexplored areas are estimated by interpolating values from nearest neighbor electrodes regardless of distances between these sites or wave front orientation. The effects of these variables on interpolated unipolar electrograms were analyzed two ways: with a computer model and with electrograms recorded 9.9 and 14.1 mm apart. For the model, wave fronts (n = 39) were generated from electrograms recorded during right ventricular (RV) activation in five dogs following the RV isolation procedure. Each wave front was assumed to propagate radially at 0.5 m/sec from a site 30 mm from the center of a square array with electrodes located at the center and corners. Each wave front crossed the array with its tangent at an angle of 0 degrees, 45 degrees, or 90 degrees to the diagonal line connecting opposite corner electrodes. Potentials for all five sites were generated from each wave front and were interpolated for the center site from the generated corner potentials. Generated and interpolated center site potentials were compared using correlation coefficients (r) and percent root mean square differences (%RMSD). Mean r values fell below 0.90 for interelectrode distances of 15.6 mm, 2.8 mm, and 1.4 mm at 0 degrees, 45 degrees, and 90 degrees wave front orientations, respectively. For experimentally measured potentials recorded 9.9 mm apart, results from interpolated electrograms were similar to results from the model at 0 degrees propagation. Electrograms interpolated from potentials measured 14.1 mm apart had poorer r and %RMS values than those from the computer model. Thus, with linear interpolation unipolar electrograms can be inaccurately interpolated from electrodes less than 3 mm apart or correctly interpolated from electrodes more than 14 mm apart depending upon wave front orientation.
Blanchard, SM; Damiano, RJ; Smith, WM; Ideker, RE; Lowe, JE
Volume / Issue
Start / End Page
Pubmed Central ID
Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)