A new sock electrode for recording epicardial activation from the human heart: one size fits all.
Simultaneous recording of epicardial activation from multiple sites during open heart surgery is essential for studying unstable ventricular arrhythmias. A previously described sock electrode array for this purpose requires custom-woven nylon sock material and expensive machined button electrodes. The limited compliance and elasticity of nylon requires that a new sock be individually fitted for each heart. Despite careful fitting, 17-20% of electrodes do not make satisfactory epicardial contact in dogs. Further, electrodes frequently dislodge from the sock and wires break at the button electrode solder joint. Recognizing these limitations, we formed a new sock from Xspan tubular dressing material and devised electrodes that attach securely to the sock. In six dogs, 90% +/- 3% of electrodes made satisfactory contact using the same Xspan sock, significantly (p less than .01) more than with the nylon sock despite far less labor. The same size X span sock with 60 snap electrodes was used to record from 27 human hearts of widely different dimensions. Satisfactory epicardial contact was obtained in 90% +/- 14% of electrodes in the 18 patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW) and 75% +/- 15% of electrodes in the nine patients with coronary artery disease. In no case did an accessory pathway fail to conduct following sock placement. The hemodynamic effect of the Xspan sock was evaluated in four dogs and was found to be minimal. Both the Xspan sock and the snap electrodes are easily made from inexpensive, readily available materials. The same Xspan sock accommodates a wide range of heart sizes, and the electrodes supported by the Xspan sock record significantly better and with less dislodgement and wire breakage than previous socks.
Worley, SJ; Ideker, RE; Mastrototaro, J; Smith, WM; Vidaillet, H; Chen, PS; Lowe, JE
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