Hemodynamic and inotropic effects of milrinone after heart transplantation in the setting of recipient pulmonary hypertension.
BACKGROUND: Right ventricular failure remains an important cause of early morbidity and death after heart transplantation and is commonly related to preexistent recipient chronic pulmonary hypertension, which occurs as a result of long-standing congestive heart failure. In this study, the hemodynamic and inotropic effects of milrinone were assessed after bicaval heart transplantation in the setting of monocrotaline pyrrole-induced recipient chronic pulmonary hypertension. METHODS: Twenty dogs were used for 10 successfully completed transplantation experiments. Recipient animals underwent right atrial injection of 3 mg/kg monocrotaline pyrrole 4 months before transplantation. Hemodynamic and functional data were taken 1 hour after termination of cardiopulmonary bypass and after milrinone infusion. Myocardial function was assessed with load-insensitive means (preload-recruitable stroke work) and pulmonary vascular impedance was calculated with Fourier analysis. RESULTS: At the time of transplantation, before cardiopulmonary bypass, pulmonary hemodynamic indexes in recipient animals were significantly increased when compared with donors and were further significantly increased after cardiopulmonary bypass. Two animals died after transplantation as a result of acute right ventricular failure. In surviving animals milrinone infusion led to significant increases in right ventricular function, which occurred in association with significant improvements in pulmonary vascular impedance and transpulmonary efficiency. CONCLUSIONS: In the setting of monocrotaline pyrrole-induced recipient pulmonary hypertension, milrinone was associated with significant improvements in pulmonary vascular impedance, right ventricular function, and transpulmonary efficiency. These data suggest that milrinone is an effective means to improve right ventricular dysfunction and pulmonary vascular efficiency after bicaval heart transplantation in the setting of recipient chronic pulmonary hypertension.
Chen, EP; Bittner, HB; Davis, RD; Van Trigt, P
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