Postprandial neurohormonal control of gastric emptying.
The delay in gastric emptying after a meal is thought to result from nutrient distention-induced release of peptides and neurotransmitters in the gut. The potential contribution of the brain and central neuropeptides to the postprandial regulation of gastric emptying has not been studied adequately. The purpose of this study was twofold: to examine the relative importance and pure central stimulation (sham feeding) or pure peripheral stimulation (duodenal feeding) on gastric emptying, and to determine whether relevant neuropeptides act in the brain to slow gastric emptying of a meal. Six mongrel dogs were prepared with esophageal fistulas, gastric fistulas, duodenal fistulas, and chronic lateral cerebroventricular guides. Gastric emptying of a 300 ml saline solution meal was measured by a phenol red dye dilution technique. Sham feeding of a blenderized meal through the esophageal fistula was used as a central cephalic stimulus. Intraduodenal oleic acid was used as a peripheral stimulus. Both sham feeding and intraduodenal oleic acid inhibited gastric emptying by 59 +/- 12 percent, 73 +/- 5 percent, respectively. In separate studies, we examined the effect on gastric emptying of a bolus injection into the lateral cerebral ventricle of graded doses of corticotropin-releasing factor (110 to 440 pmol/kg), cholecystokinin (16 to 128 pmol/kg), somatostatin-14 (55 pmol/kg), human calcitonin gene-related peptide (230 pmol/kg), and neuropeptide Y (62 to 250 pmol/kg). These peptides are known to affect satiety, gastric emptying, and gastric acid secretion. Of these, only neuropeptide Y and cholecystokinin had an effect on gastric emptying when administered into the lateral cerebral ventricle. Neuropeptide Y inhibited emptying by 28 +/- 8 percent and cholecystokinin accelerated emptying by 32 +/- 12 percent (p less than 0.05). Sham feeding inhibits gastric emptying to a similar degree as intraduodenal feeding, and of the neuropeptides tested, only neuropeptide Y inhibited gastric emptying when given into the brain. The central release of neuropeptides such as neuropeptide Y during a meal may trigger neural pathways that promote postprandial delay in gastric emptying. Central signals may be as important as peripheral signals in the postprandial control of gastric emptying. Further studies are needed to determine the mechanism by which sham feeding inhibits gastric emptying and whether central release of neuropeptide Y is involved.
Pappas, TN; Taylor, IL; Debas, HT
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