Cystic duct patency in malignant obstructive jaundice. An ERCP-based study relevant to the role of laparoscopic cholecystojejunostomy.
OBJECTIVE: This endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography-(ERCP)based study estimates the potential role of laparoscopic cholecystojejunostomy for palliation of patients with malignant obstructive jaundice. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Traditional treatment of malignant obstructive jaundice has used a standard bilioenteric anastomosis. Laparoscopic biliary bypass via a gallbladder conduit currently is an established technique; it provides a low initial morbidity alternative to open procedures, similar to endoscopic stenting. No study has specifically addressed anatomic factors relevant to cholecystojejunostomy, such as prior cholecystectomy, stricture location in reference to the hepatocystic junction, and cystic duct patency in patients with malignant obstructive jaundice. METHODS: Retrograde cholangiograms were reviewed from consecutive patients with malignant obstructive jaundice and a control group without biliary disease who underwent ERCP during a 2-year period. Patients with either prior biliary surgery or hilar tumors were excluded. The presence of gallbladder or cystic duct filling was assessed. In patients with patent cystic ducts, the distance from obstruction to the cystic duct takeoff was classified as either greater or less than 1 cm. RESULTS: Nearly half the patients with malignant obstructive jaundice were ineligible for cholecystojejunostomies because of prior biliary surgery (29%) or hilar tumors (17%). Half (50 of 101) of the remaining potential candidates had patent hepatocystic junctions. Patients with ampullary carcinoma and patent hepatocystic junctions (5 of 9) were all ideal candidates for cholecystojejunostomies, having biliary obstruction more than 1 cm from the cystic duct takeoff. Two thirds of the remaining eligible patients (28 of 45) had obstructions less than 1 cm from patent hepatocystic junctions. CONCLUSIONS: Palliation of malignant obstructive jaundice by laparoscopic cholecystojejunostomy should only be attempted after direct cholangiography demonstrates a patent hepatocystic junction that is well separated from the malignant stricture. The majority of patients with malignant obstructive jaundice are ineligible for cholecystojejunostomies because of prior cholecystectomies, hilar obstructions, or tumor involvement of the hepatocystic junction. Nonoperative treatments will continue to be indicated for the majority of patients with malignant obstructive jaundice.
Tarnasky, PR; England, RE; Lail, LM; Pappas, TN; Cotton, PB
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