Differential survival after coronary revascularization procedures among patients with renal insufficiency.
BACKGROUND: Acute myocardial infarction, cardiac arrest, and other cardiac events are the major cause of mortality among patients with renal insufficiency. Previous studies of interventions for coronary artery disease among patients with renal insufficiency have not controlled for potentially confounding factors such as coronary artery disease severity and left ventricular function. This study investigates the comparative survival for patients with renal insufficiency and coronary artery disease following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery as compared with percutaneous coronary artery intervention (PCI), while controlling for confounding factors. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing CABG surgery or PCI discharged between 1993 and 1995 uses the New York Department of Health databases and Cox proportional hazards analyses to estimate the mortality risk associated with CABG as compared with PCI for patients with renal insufficiency. Renal function was categorized as creatinine <2.5 mg/dL (N = 58,329), creatinine > or =2.5 mg/dL (N = 840), and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring dialysis (N = 407). RESULTS: Patients with either ESRD or serum creatinine > or =2.5 mg/dL had more severe coronary artery disease and a greater frequency of comorbid conditions as compared with patients with creatinine <2.5 mg/dL. Creatinine > or =2.5 mg/dL and ESRD were both associated with an increased mortality risk among all distributions of coronary artery disease anatomy. Among patients with ESRD, the risk ratio (RR) of mortality for patients undergoing CABG compared with PCI was 0.39 (95% CI, 0.22 to 0.67, P = 0.0006). Among patients with creatinine > or =2.5 mg/dL, CABG surgery did not convey a survival benefit over PCI (RR, 0.86, 95% CI, 0.56 to 1.33, P = 0.50). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a survival benefit among patients with ESRD undergoing CABG surgery as compared with PCI, while controlling for severity of coronary artery disease, left ventricular dysfunction, and other comorbid conditions. These results suggest that management decisions among patients with coronary artery disease should be made in the context of not only location and severity of coronary artery lesions, but also on the presence and severity of renal dysfunction.
Szczech, LA; Reddan, DN; Owen, WF; Califf, R; Racz, M; Jones, RH; Hannan, EL
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