The effects of ventricular pacing on left ventricular geometry, function, myocardial oxygen consumption, and efficiency of contraction in conscious dogs.
The effects of ventricular pacing on left ventricular (LV) dynamic geometry, function, and myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2) were measured in 12 conscious dogs using sonomicrometry, micromanometry, ultrasonic flow probes, and oximetry catheters during right atrial (A-) and right ventricular (V-) pacing at 150 beats/min. Systolic function was quantified using slopes (MW) and volume-intercepts (VW) of linear relationships between end-diastolic volume (EDV) and stroke work (SW) for data obtained during vena caval occlusion. V-pacing shifted SW-EDV relationships downward (MW decreased from 97 +/- 21 to 81 +/- 21 Kerg/mL) and to the right (VW increased from 14 +/- 11 to 20 +/- 12 mL) in comparison with A-pacing (P < 0.02). These functional changes correlated with altered contractile geometry manifest as early shortening in the septal free wall relative to anterior-posterior dimension (increased minor axis mid-wall eccentricity at end-diastole and begin-ejection). Steady-state LV power output decreased from 802 +/- 213 mW during A-pacing to 514 +/- 170 mW during V-pacing (P < 0.05), while MVO2 remained relatively unchanged during V-pacing (10 +/- 3 mL O2/min vs 11 +/- 3 mL O2/min during A-pacing, P = NS). As a result, overall LV efficiency decreased from 0.24 +/- 0.08 during A-pacing to 0.16 +/- 0.06 during V-pacing (P < 0.05). These data illustrate the impact of V-pacing on dynamic LV geometry and function, including impaired LV work output at all physiological levels of preload. Most importantly, the relationship between LV work output and MVO2 is depressed during V-pacing, emphasizing the interaction between LV mechanics and pump efficiency in intact subjects. As a result, measures taken to restore normal contractile geometry might improve LV efficiency and performance when V-pacing is necessary.
Owen, CH; Esposito, DJ; Davis, JW; Glower, DD
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