Physiologic determinants of coronary blood flow during external cardiac massage.
Adequate coronary blood flow is a major determinant for successful resuscitation from cardiopulmonary arrest. To develop compression techniques that optimize coronary blood flow, we implanted in eight dogs electromagnetic flow probes that measured circumflex coronary blood flow and ascending aortic blood flow. Micromanometers measured left ventricular and aortic pressures. Each dog was anesthetized and intubated, and the heart was fibrillated electrically. High-impulse manual chest compressions were performed with the dog in the supine position, and compression rate was varied from 60/min to 150/min. Antegrade coronary blood flow occurred primarily during artificial diastole, and there was a brief period of retrograde coronary blood flow with compression during artificial systole. Cardiac output and diastolic aortic pressure increased with compression rate, significantly augmenting peak coronary blood flow velocity. However, diastolic perfusion time decreased linearly with compression rate and limited coronary perfusion at rates greater than 120/min. As a result, net coronary blood flow during high-impulse manual chest compression was determined primarily by diastolic aortic pressure and diastolic perfusion time. Coronary blood flow was optimized in this model at a compression rate of 120/min.
Wolfe, JA; Maier, GW; Newton, JR; Glower, DD; Tyson, GS; Spratt, JA; Rankin, JS; Olsen, CO
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