Application of in vivo and in vitro pharmacokinetics for physiologically relevant drug exposure in a human tumor clonogenic cell assay.
The biological half-lives and decay rate constants under the conditions of a human brain tumor clonogenic cell assay were determined for six clinically used anticancer agents. The agents studied were: 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea; 3-(2-chloroethyl-3-nitrosoureido-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranose; cis-diaminedichloroplatinum(II); 2,5-diaziridinyl-3,6-bis-(carboethoxyamino)-1,4-benzoquinone; 4-demethylepipodophylotoxin-D-thylidene glucoside; and 9-hydroxy-2-N-methylellipticine. In vitro decay of all six drugs was found to be according to first order kinetics. The half-lives of two drugs, namely, 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl-1-nitrosourea and 3-(2-chloroethyl-3-nitrosoureido-2-deoxy-D-glucopyranose under the human tumor clonogenic cell assay (HTCA) conditions were found to be similar to their terminal in vivo half-lives in humans. For the other drugs, however, there was a very large difference between their in vitro and in vivo pharmacokinetics. In the case of 2,5-diaziridinyl-3,6-bis(carboethoxyamine)-1,4-benzoquinone, we observed about an 80-fold difference between its in vitro half-life of 40.76 h and its in vivo terminal half-life of 0.52 h. We describe the principles upon which these data can be used to design clinically more relevant in vitro drug exposure protocols in HTCAs. Since, generally, tumor cells are exposed to drugs in the HTCA either continuously or for a specified duration, e.g., 1 or 2 h, we computed the initial in vitro drug concentrations to which tumor cells should be exposed such that the resulting in vitro (c X t) after a 2-h or a continuous exposure will be within clinically achievable levels. The application of these in vivo and in vitro pharmacokinetic principles will provide for more physiological testing of patient tumor cell sensitivity to anticancer drugs in the HTCA, and is likely to result in lower rates of false positive responses in clinical trials using clonogenic cell assays.
Ali-Osman, F; Giblin, J; Dougherty, D; Rosenblum, ML
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