Glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 genetic polymorphisms, alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk.
Alcohol consumption has been inconsistently associated with breast cancer risk. Recent studies suggest that genetic polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) may modify this relation. To determine if breast cancer risk is associated with GSTM1 and GSTT1 genetic polymorphisms, and to evaluate the effect modification between GST genotypes and alcohol consumption in the risk of breast cancer, we conducted a case-control study in the state of Connecticut in the period 1998 and 2001. Cases were histologically confirmed, incident breast cancer patients in New Haven County, CT. Controls were randomly selected from women histologically confirmed to be without breast cancer. The study results show that, while GSTM1 genotypes were not associated with breast cancer risk, GSTT1-null genotype was associated with a significant 90% increased risk for postmenopausal women (OR=1.9, 95% CI 1.2-3.0). Analysis by GST genotypes and alcohol consumption shows that GSTM1A ever-drinking women had a 2.5-fold (OR=2.5, 95% CI 1.1-5.5) increased risk of breast cancer compared to the GSTM1A never-drinkers, and the risk increases with duration and daily amount of alcohol consumption. Postmenopausal women with GSTT1-null genotype, who consumed a lifetime of >250 kg of spirit-equivalents, had an almost seven-fold increased risk (OR=6.8, 95% CI 1.4-33.9), and drinking commencing at younger ages appears to carry a higher risk. An OR of 8.2 (95% CI 1.2-57.4) was observed for those with GSTM1A, and GSTT1-null genotypes who had consumed a lifetime of >250 kg of spirit-equivalents. In conclusion, alcohol consumption may increase breast cancer risk among those who carry susceptible GST genotypes.
Zheng, T; Holford, TR; Zahm, SH; Owens, PH; Boyle, P; Zhang, Y; Zhang, B; Wise, JP; Stephenson, LP; Ali-Osman, F
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