Modulation of melphalan resistance in glioma cells with a peripheral benzodiazepine receptor ligand-melphalan conjugate.
Peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (PBRs) are located on the outer membrane of mitochondria, and their density is increased in brain tumors. Thus, they may serve as a unique intracellular and selective target for antineoplastic agents. A PBR ligand-melphalan conjugate (PBR-MEL) was synthesized and evaluated for cytotoxicity and affinity for PBRs. PBR-MEL (9) (i.e., 670 amu) was synthesized by coupling of two key intermediates: 4-[bis(2-chloroethyl)-amino]-L-phenylalanine ethyl ester trifluoroacetate (6) and 1-(3'-carboxylpropyl)-7-chloro-1,3- dihydro-5-phenyl-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one (8). On the basis of receptor-binding displacement assays in rat brain and glioma cells, 9 had appreciable binding affinity and displaced a prototypical PBR ligand, Ro 5-4864, with IC50 values between 289 and 390 nM. 9 displayed differential cytotoxicity to a variety of rat and human brain tumor cell lines. In some of the cell lines tested including rat and human melphalan-resistant cell lines, 9 demonstrated appreciable cytotoxicity with IC50 values in the micromolar range, lower than that of melphalan alone. The enhanced activity of 9 may reflect increased membrane permeability, increased intracellular retention, or modulation of melphalan's mechanisms of resistance. The combined data support additional studies to determine how 9 may modulate melphalan resistance, its mechanisms of action, and if target selectivity can be achieved in in vivo glioma models.
Kupczyk-Subotkowska, L; Siahaan, TJ; Basile, AS; Friedman, HS; Higgins, PE; Song, D; Gallo, JM
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