Chemically induced vasospasm: the effect of ischemia, vessel occlusion, and adrenergic blockade.
Vasospasm in revascularized tissue can compromise tissue perfusion even though the microsurgical anastomoses remain patent. Circulating catecholamine stimulates peripheral vasoconstriction. Chemical vasospasm was induced by the intraarterial administration of norepinephrine to denervated rat hind limbs. Heel pad blood flow was assessed by laser-Doppler velocimetry. Mean blood flow was 463 +/- 106 in the denervated leg and 337 +/- 50 in the opposite (intact) leg (p less than 0.01). Flow in the denervated leg decreased 78 percent (463 +/- 106 to 100 +/- 23) within 5 minutes of norepinephrine administration and did not return to normal for 30 minutes. Norepinephrine administration in the presence of 1 and 3 hours of ischemia decreased flow at 5 minutes to 6.6 and 6.0 percent of normal, respectively (31 +/- 14, 28 +/- 14, control 100 +/- 23; p less than 0.001). Administration of intraarterial norepinephrine distal to a femoral artery occluded for 1 and 5 minutes reduced flow following clamp release to 11.2 and 7.1 percent of normal 5 minutes after clamp release (52 +/- 9, 33 +/- 7, control 100 +/- 23; p less than 0.001). Comparison of the 1-minute and 5-minute groups to each other showed a significant flow decrease in the 5-minute group (p less than 0.007). This indicates that the observed decrease in flow was related both to the presence of a vessel occlusion and to the length of the occlusion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Richards, RR; Seaber, AV; Urbaniak, JR
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