Skeletal muscle reperfusion injury is enhanced in extracellular superoxide dismutase knockout mouse.
This study investigates the role of extracellular SOD (EC-SOD), the major extracellular antioxidant enzyme, in skeletal muscle ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury. Pedicled cremaster muscle flaps from homozygous EC-SOD knockout (EC-SOD-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice were subjected to 4.5-h ischemia and 90-min reperfusion followed by functional and molecular analyses. Our results revealed that EC-SOD-/- mice showed significantly profound I/R injury compared with WT littermates. In particular, there was a delayed and incomplete recovery of arterial spasm and blood flow during reperfusion, and more severe acute inflammatory reaction and muscle damage were noted in EC-SOD-/- mice. After 90-min reperfusion, intracellular SOD [copper- and zinc-containing SOD (CuZn-SOD) and manganese-containing (Mn-SOD)] mRNA levels decreased similarly in both groups. EC-SOD mRNA levels increased in WT mice, whereas EC-SOD mRNA was undetectable, as expected, in EC-SOD-/- mice. In both groups of animals, CuZn-SOD protein levels decreased and Mn-SOD protein levels remained unchanged. EC-SOD protein levels decreased in WT mice. Histological analysis showed diffuse edema and inflammation around muscle fibers, which was more pronounced in EC-SOD-/- mice. In conclusion, our data suggest that EC-SOD plays an important role in the protection from skeletal muscle I/R injury caused by excessive generation of reactive oxygen species.
Park, JW; Qi, W-N; Cai, Y; Zelko, I; Liu, JQ; Chen, L-E; Urbaniak, JR; Folz, RJ
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