Multistability in tubuloglomerular feedback and spectral complexity in spontaneously hypertensive rats.
Single-nephron proximal tubule pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) can exhibit highly irregular oscillations similar to deterministic chaos. We used a mathematical model of tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) to investigate potential sources of the irregular oscillations and the corresponding complex power spectra in SHR. A bifurcation analysis of the TGF model equations, for nonzero thick ascending limb (TAL) NaCl permeability, was performed by finding roots of the characteristic equation, and numerical simulations of model solutions were conducted to assist in the interpretation of the analysis. These techniques revealed four parameter regions, consistent with TGF gain and delays in SHR, where multiple stable model solutions are possible: 1) a region having one stable, time-independent steady-state solution; 2) a region having one stable oscillatory solution only, of frequency f1; 3) a region having one stable oscillatory solution only, of frequency f2, which is approximately equal to 2f1; and 4) a region having two possible stable oscillatory solutions, of frequencies f1 and f2. In addition, we conducted simulations in which TAL volume was assumed to vary as a function of time and simulations in which two or three nephrons were assumed to have coupled TGF systems. Four potential sources of spectral complexity in SHR were identified: 1) bifurcations that permit switching between different stable oscillatory modes, leading to multiple spectral peaks and their respective harmonic peaks; 2) sustained lability in delay parameters, leading to broadening of peaks and of their harmonics; 3) episodic, but abrupt, lability in delay parameters, leading to multiple peaks and their harmonics; and 4) coupling of small numbers of nephrons, leading to multiple peaks and their harmonics. We conclude that the TGF system in SHR may exhibit multistability and that the complex power spectra of the irregular TGF fluctuations in this strain may be explained by switching between multiple dynamic modes, temporal variation in TGF parameters, and nephron coupling.
Layton, AT; Moore, LC; Layton, HE
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