Total respiratory support from swine lungs in primate recipients.
The use of nonhuman lung donors, such as swine, has the potential to provide an unlimited supply of organs. However, hyperacute rejection has prevented pulmonary xenotransplantation. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to test the hypothesis that immunodepletion by pretransplantation swine lung perfusion will prevent hyperacute swine-to-primate pulmonary xenograft rejection and allow for a functional swine pulmonary xenograft. METHODS: Seven baboons underwent left pneumonectomy followed by orthotopic transplantation of the swine left lung. Four baboons received immunodepletion by perfusion with swine lungs before transplantation, and three received no treatment before transplantation. RESULTS: After transplantation, pulmonary xenografts from immunodepleted baboons had a low pulmonary vascular resistance and a high pulmonary blood flow compared with control animals, which had a high pulmonary vascular resistance and a low pulmonary blood flow. After 60 minutes of reperfusion, three of four immunodepleted animals also tolerated complete occlusion of the right pulmonary artery, with the baboon relying completely on the swine pulmonary xenograft for respiratory function for 11 hours. Pathologic analysis of peripheral lung biopsy specimens taken from control lungs displayed alveolar disruption and hemorrhage within small vessels, whereas swine lungs transplanted into immunodepleted baboons displayed little histologic evidence of injury. Furthermore, pulmonary xenografts transplanted into immunodepleted baboons demonstrated excellent respiratory function and adequate hemodynamics during occlusion of the right pulmonary artery. CONCLUSION: Hyperacute pulmonary xenograft rejection can be prevented by pretransplantation swine lung perfusion. Swine pulmonary xenografts can provide complete respiratory support in primates when rejection is prevented.
Daggett, CW; Yeatman, M; Lodge, AJ; Chen, EP; Lin, SS; Gullotto, C; Frank, MM; Platt, JL; Davis, RD
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