Computer-assisted modeling of blood-flow: theoretical evidence for the existence of optimal flow wave patterns.
The purpose of this study was to model blood-flow waveforms in order to examine the relationship between various waveform shapes and input impedance spectra. Twenty distinct single cardiac cycle flow waveforms having the same mean flow and heart rate were created based on clinical and published observations. The "best" waveform was one with a steep flow upstroke, a high peak flow value, swift deceleration following peak flow, and flow reversal during diastole. Each flow waveform was paired with 20 computer-generated pressure waveforms to calculate input impedance spectra by discrete Fourier transformation. "Favorable" flow waveforms were associated consistently with a lower characteristic impedance (average of 4th-10th harmonics, Zav) irrespective of the shape or magnitude of the input pressure wave. Zav corresponds to the degree of compliance of the vascular bed and could be expected to be lower under favorable outflow conditions and in non-diseased vessels. In conclusion, this study provides theoretical evidence for the existence of optimal flow wave patterns and supports the notion of flow waveform assessment for diagnostic purposes.
Schwartz, LB; Purut, CM; Craig, DM; Smith, PK; McCann, RL
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