Cooperative activation of human factor IX by the human extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation.
The activation of human coagulation factor IX by human tissue factor.factor VIIa.PCPS.Ca2+ (TF.VIIa.PCPS.Ca2+) and factor Xa.PCPS.Ca2+ enzyme complexes was investigated. Reactions were performed in a highly purified system consisting of isolated human plasma proteins and recombinant human tissue factor with synthetic phospholipid vesicles (PCPS: 75% phosphatidylcholine (PC), 25% phosphatidylserine (PS)). Factor IX activation was evaluated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, [3H]factor IX activation peptide assay, colorimetric substrate thiobenzyl benzyloxycarbonyl-L-lysinate (Z-Lys-SBzl) hydrolysis, and specific incorporation of a fluorescent peptidyl chloromethyl ketone. Factor IX activation by the TF.VIIa.PCPS.Ca2+ enzyme complex was observed to proceed through the obligate non-enzymatic intermediate species factor IX alpha. The simultaneous activation of human coagulation factors IX and X by the TF.VIIa.PCPS.Ca2+ enzyme complex were investigated. When factors IX and X were presented to the TF.VIIa complex, at equal concentrations, it was observed that the rate of factor IX activation remained unchanged while the rate of factor X activation slowed by 45%. When the proteolytic cleavage products of this reaction were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, it was observed that the intermediate species factor IX alpha was generated more rapidly when factor X was present in the reaction mixture. When factor IX was treated with factor Xa.PCPS in the presence of Ca2+, it was observed that factor IX was rapidly converted to factor IX alpha. The activation of factor IX alpha by the TF.VIIa.PCPS.Ca2+ complex was evaluated, and it was observed that factor IX alpha was activated more rapidly by the TF.VIIa.PCPS.Ca2+ complex than was factor IX itself. These data suggest that factors IX and X, when presented to the TF.VIIa.PCPS.Ca2+ enzyme complex, are both rapidly activated and that factor Xa, which is generated in the initial stages of the extrinsic pathway, participates in the first proteolytic step in the activation of factor IX, the generation of factor IX alpha.
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