Regulation of platelet heparanase during inflammation: role of pH and proteinases.
Heparan sulfate is rapidly degraded by an endoglycosidase (heparanase) secreted by activated platelets. Since the cleavage and release of heparan sulfate would profoundly alter the local physiology of the endothelium, platelet heparanase activity should be tightly regulated. Consistent with this hypothesis, platelet heparanase was found to degrade endothelial cell heparan sulfate at pH 6.0 but not at pH 7.4, even though 25% of maximum activity was detected at pH 7.4. Loss of heparanase activity occurred rapidly (t1/2 is approximately equal to 20 min) and reversibly at physiologic pH but did not occur at acidic pH (<7.0). Inactivation of heparanase at pH 7.4 did not affect heparin binding and was reversed by 0.5 M NaCl or by heparan sulfate but not by chondroitin sulfate, suggesting inactive heparanase could be tethered on cell surfaces and the function regulated by heparan sulfate. Heparanase was gradually inactivated by trypsin and urokinase (t1/2 = 5 h) but resisted cleavage by leukocyte cathepsin G, leukocyte elastase, plasmin, and thrombin. These findings are consistent with a model in which platelet heparanase is active at the low pH of inflammation but inactive under physiologic conditions preventing inadvertent cleavage of heparan sulfate and loss of physiologic functions of endothelial cells.
Ihrcke, NS; Parker, W; Reissner, KJ; Platt, JL
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