Differential recognition by proteins of alpha-galactosyl residues on endothelial cell surfaces.
The binding of proteins to cell surface carbohydrates contributes to cell-cell interactions in development, immunity, and various physiologic processes. Such interactions are presumably dictated not only by the chemical structure of the carbohydrate but also reflect the properties of the protein and the microenvironment in which the protein-carbohydrate interaction occurs. To explore the factors influencing the recognition of cell surface carbohydrates by proteins, the extent to which three classes of proteins--anti-Gal alpha 1-3Gal IgM found in higher primates, Griffonia simplicifolia type I lectin, isolectin B4 (GS-IB4), and alpha-galactosidase--interact with Gal alpha 1-3Gal on porcine cell surfaces was tested. Although the Gal alpha 1-3Gal residues expressed on porcine endothelial cells and recognized by anti-Gal alpha 1-3Gal IgM and GS-IB4 were both sensitive to cleavage by alpha-galactosidase, the sites recognized by GS-IB4 were more sensitive to cleavage than sites recognized by anti-Gal alpha 1-3Gal IgM. Cross-blocking studies on porcine cell surfaces revealed that a significant proportion of anti-Gal alpha 1-3Gal IgM bound to sites not recognized by GS-IB4; however, anti-Gal alpha 1-3Gal IgM and GS-IB4 recognized the same sites on solubilized membrane proteins and model compounds. These results suggest that features of the cell surface such as the three-dimensional arrangement of Gal alpha 1-3Gal and characteristics of the protein such as size and valency play critical roles in specific interactions on cell surfaces.
Lin, SS; Parker, W; Everett, ML; Platt, JL
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