Evidence for polyreactive xenoreactive antibodies in the repertoire of human anti-swine antibodies: the 'next' humoral barrier to xenotransplantation?
The xenoreactive nature of anti-Galalpha1-3Gal antibodies, and to a lesser extent, polyreactive antibodies, has been characterized by a number of investigators. With the advent of therapies that avoid hyperacute xenograft rejection due to anti-Galalpha1-3Gal antibodies coupled with the possible development of Galalpha1-3Gal deficient swine, the Galalpha1-3Gal antigen may soon cease to be a barrier to xenotransplantation. With this in mind, the potential xenoreactive nature of polyreactive antibodies was investigated using several approaches. The levels of polyreactive antibodies from the serum of newborn (n = 2) and adult (n = 4) baboons undergoing pulmonary xenotransplantation were evaluated. Depletion of 95% and 94% of total serum IgM, without any decrease in albumin levels, was observed in the newborn baboons. This finding indicates that the IgM present at birth and germ line polyreactive IgM was adsorbed by the xenografts. The depletion of polyreactive antibodies (43-83% reduction of anti-DNP IgM) from adult baboons was also observed following pulmonary xenotransplantation or immunoadsorption therapy plus pulmonary xenotransplantation. Additional experiments using human cord serum indicated that most human polyreactive IgM were adsorbed by pig lung homogenate and that the human polyreactive IgM bound approximately two-fold more to immobilized pig lung antigens than to immobilized human lung antigens. These findings indicate that germline polyreactive antibodies are, for the most part, xenoreactive. These data suggest that polyreactive antibodies, although autoreactive, may be more xenoreactive than autoreactive.
Gaca, JG; Lee, W; Aksoy, O; Braedehoeft, SJ; Gonzalez-Stawinski, GV; Parker, W; Davis, RD
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