Leukocyte phenotypic changes in an in vitro model of ABO hemolytic transfusion reaction.
BACKGROUND: ABO antigen-antibody interaction in the presence of peripheral blood leukocytes (white cells) results in the production of a variety of proinflammatory cytokines. However, although tumor necrosis factor alpha has been shown to be derived at least primarily from monocytes, the range of cells activated by this process has not previously been reported. Therefore, changes in mononuclear cell surface antigen expression were studied, to determine which subsets of white cells appeared to be activated in the setting of ABO incompatibility. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Group O peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were incubated in autologous plasma with group A or O red cells (RBCs) for up to 24 hours. White cell expression of activation and adhesion markers was measured at 2 and 24 hours by flow cytometry, using direct or indirect fluorescein or phycoerythrin labeling. RESULTS: Expression of lymphocyte activation markers CD25, CDw108, and CD109 was equivalent when PBMCs incubated with group A and O RBCs were compared. However, after 2 hours, mean fluorescence of CD14 on PBMCs incubated with group A RBCs was 65 percent of that on PBMCs incubated with group O RBCs and remained similarly decreased at 24 hours. CD44 expression was upregulated on PBMCs exposed to both group A and O RBCs, but it was increased significantly more on monocytes exposed to group A RBCs. The ability to bind hyaluronic acid was induced in approximately 42 percent of CD14+ monocytes exposed to group A RBCs but in no cells exposed to group O RBCs. CONCLUSION: Downregulation of CD14 and increased binding of hyaluronic acid reflects monocyte activation in this model. No evidence of lymphocyte activation was found, supporting the hypothesis that ABO transfusion reactions primarily activate monocytes.
Udani, M; Rao, N; Telen, MJ
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